Treatments
NEUROLOGICAL CONDITION
STROKE

A STROKE is always a medical emergency. A stroke is not a heart attack. A stroke happens when the supply of blood to the brain is suddenly interrupted. Some strokes are fatal while others cause permanent or temporary disability. The longer a stroke remains untreated, the greater the chance of stroke related brain damage. Emergency medical treatment soon after symptoms begin improves the chance of survival and successful rehabilitation. Facial weakness, arm weakness and difficulty with speech are the most common symptoms or signs of stroke, but they are not the only signs. Weakness or numbness or paralysis of the face, arm or leg on either or both sides of the body. Difficulty speaking or understanding Dizziness, loss of balance or an unexplained fall Loss of vision, sudden blurring or decreased vision in one or both eyes Headache, usually severe and abrupt onset or unexplained change in the pattern of headaches. Difficulty swallowing.

HEAD INJURY

AN INSULT TO THE BRAIN CAUSED BY EXTERNAL PHYSICAL FORCE THAT MAY PRODUCE ALTERED/DIMINISHED LEVEL OF CONSCIOUSNESS RESULTING IN IMPAIRMENT OF COGNITIVE, PHYSICAL, EMOTIONAL, BEHAVIORAL FUNCTIONING.

CLASSIFICATION

  • ON THE BASIS OF TYPE OF INJURY- CONCUSSION/CONTUSION/LACERATION
  • ON THE LOCATION OF ACCUMULATION OF BLOOD- EXTRADURAL HAEMATOMA/ SUBDURAL HAEMATOMA/ SUBARACHNOID HAEMATOMA/ INTRAPARENCHYMAL HAEMATOMA
  • ON THE INTEGRITY OF THE SKULL BONES – OPEN INJURY/ CLOSED INJURY
  • ON THE NATURE OF TISSUE INVOLVEMENT- DIFFUSED AXONAL INJURY/ LOCALISED INJURY
TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA

IT IS CHARACTERISED BY PAROXYSMAL ATTACKS OF SEVERE , SHORT, SHARP, STABBING PAIN AFFECTING ONE OR MORE DIVISIONS OF TRIGEMINAL NERVE

AGGRAVATING FACTORS- CHEWING/ SPEAKING/ WASHING FACE/ TOOTHBRUSHING/ COLD WINDS/ OR TOUCHING SPECIFIC TRIGGER SPOT

CEREBRAL PALSY

IT IS A NON-PROGRESSIVE DISORDER OF NEUROMUSCULAR ORIGIN INVOLVING CEREBRAL CORTEX AND ITS MOTOR PATHWAYS DUE TO MATERNAL THYROID/ MENTAL RETARDATION/ PREVIOUS PREGANCY LOSS/ POLYHYDRAMNIOS OR PERINATAL FACTORS INCLUDING ASPHYXIA/ UMBLICAL CORD PROLAPSE/ BREECH PRESENATATION/ LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANTS OR POSTNATAL FACTORS- INFECTIONS- MENINGITIS/ENCEPHALITIS, TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY/ HYPOXIC-ISCHAEMIC ENCEPHALOPATHY
TYPES- SPASTIC DIPLEGIC/ SPASTIC HEMIPLEGIC/ SPASTIC QUADRIPLEGIC/ ATHETOID CP/ EXTRAPYRAMIDAL CP .

Cerebral palsy

PARKINSON’S DISEASE

DEGENERATIVE DISORDER OF BASAL GANGLIA DUE TO THE DEFICIENCY OF NEUROTRANSMITTER DOAPMINE IN CORPUS STRIATUM FOLLOWING LESION IN SUBSTANTIA NIGRA

CHARACTERISED BY-

Parkinson’s disease

  • RIGIDITY
  • BRADYKINESIA
  • IMPAIRED MOTOR LEARNING
  • RESTING TREMORS
  • POSTURAL INSTABLITY- FLEXED STOOPED POSTURE
  • EXPRESSION LESS MAK LIKE FACE
  • GAIT DISTURBANCES- STIFF SHUFFLING GAIT
  • SMALL HANDWRITING DIFFICULT TO READ
  • SIALORRHEA
HEMIPLEGIA

HEMIPLEGIA- THE PARALYSIS OF ONE SIDE OF THE BODY
DIPLEGIA- THE SYMMETRICAL PARALYSIS OF THE BODY, MOSTLY LOWER LIMBS
QUADRIPLEGIA- THE PARALYSIS OF WHOLE BODY

 

Hemiplegia

BELL’S PALSY

A CONDITION CAUSED DUE TO THE PARALYSIS OF THE FACIAL NERVE RESULTING IN THE FOLLOWING:

      • DRIBBLING OF SALIVA
      • LOSS OF CREASES OF FOREHEAD
      • LOSS OF NASOLABIAL FOLD
      • LOST GESTURES LIKE SMILING, ANGER, WHISTLING
      • IN AN ATTEMPT TO CLOSE THE EYES, THE EYES ARE ROLLED UPWARDS
    • DIFFICULTY IN CHEWING FOOD
MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

IT IS A CHRONIC INFLAMMATORY, DEMYLELINATING DISEASE OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM IN WHICH THE INSULATING COVERS OF THE NERVE CELLS IN THE BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD ARE DAMAGED., MORE COMMON IN FEMALES

MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS 1

MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS 2

MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS 3

SIGNS & SYMPTOMS-

  • SENSORY LOSS 45%
  • OPTIC NEURITIS- BLURR VISION
  • ATAXIA (DIFFICULTY WITH BALANCE AND COORDINATION)
  • PROBLEMS WITH SPEECH AND SWALLOWING.
  • MUSCLE WEAKNESS, SPASMS, SPASTICITY
  • WORSENING OF SYMPTOMS DUE TO EXPOSURE TO MORE THAN USUAL TEMPERATURE.
  • VERTIGO
  • BLADDER & BOWEL INVOLVEMENT
TRANSVERSE MYELITIS

AN IMMUNE-MEDIATED PROCESS RESULTING IN NEURAL INJURY TO THE SPINAL CORD MAY BE IDIOPATHIC/ AFTER BACTERIAL/VIRAL INFECTIONS/ MEASLES/ THROMBOSIS OF SPINAL ARTERIES.

TRANSVERSE MYELITIS 1 TRANSVERSE MYELITIS

 

SYMPTOMS-

  • SENSORY LOSS IN LOWER HALF OF THE BODY 80-94%
  • MUSCLE WEAKNESS LEADING TO PARALYSIS
  • BLADDER AND BOWEL DYSFUNCTION
  • SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION, DIFFICULTY IN URINATION, FEVER, HEADACHES
  • ALLODYNIA- CLOTHING ON THE BODY PRODUCES PAIN
  • THE PATIENT EITHER FEELS TOO MUCH COLD/ HOT OR IS UNABLE TO FEEL ANYTHING
STRESS INCONTINENCE

THE UNINTENTIONAL AND UNCONTROLLABLE LEAKAGE OF URINE, MOST COMMON IN WOMEN, ASSOCIATED WITH COUGHING, LAUGHING, SNEEZING OR EXERCISING

PRENATAL, ANTENATAL, AND POSTNATAL CARE

Prenatal, antenatal, and postnatal care Prenatal, antenatal, and postnatal care1 Prenatal, antenatal, and postnatal care2 Prenatal, antenatal, and postnatal care4

CHIKUNGUNYA

Chikungunya is a viral disease transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes. It causes fever and severe joint pain. Other symptoms include muscle pain, headache, nausea, fatigue and rash. The fever usually lasts two to seven days, while accompanying joint pains typically last weeks or months but sometimes years.

 

Chikungunya