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ORTHOPAEDIC CONDITION-1
FIBROMYALGIA

A COMMON CONDITION CHARACTERISED BY TENDER POINTS IN JOINTS, MUSCLES, TENDONS, & OTHER SOFT TISSUES DUE TO SLEEP DISTURBANCES, MUSCU

FibromyalgiaSYMPTOMS-

  • LONG STANDING, BODY WIDE PAIN & DEFINED TENDER POINTS.
  • DEEP ACHING, SHOOTING, RADIATING & BURNING PAIN
  • EARLY MORNING ACHES & STIFFNESS

REDUCE EXERCISE TOLERANCE LOSKELETAL CONDITIONS, CHRONIC FATIGUE.

 

 

Fibromyalgia1

OSTEOARTHRITIS
  • “ARTHRITIS” REFERS TO THE INFLAMMATION INVOLVING ARTICULAR CARTILAGE DISRUPTION, SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE, & THE PERI-ARTICULAR STRUCTURES.
  • A. IS A DEGENERATIVE JOINT DISEASE D/T THE WEAR & TEAR OF THE ARTICULAR CARTILAGE.
  • IT AFFECTS THE WEIGHT BEARING JOINTS OF THE BODY- HIP, KNEE & SPINAL JOINTS.
  • SLOW PREOGRESSION OVER MANY YEARS IN RESPONSE TO THE MECHANICAL STRESS.
  • ONSET- AFTER 40 YRS
  • KNEE PAIN CAN ORIGINATE IN ANY OF THE BONY STRUCTURES COMPROMISING THE KNEE JOINT (FEMUR,TIBIA, FIBULA) , THE KNEECAP (PATELLA), OR THE LIGAMENTS & CARTILAGE (MENISCUS) OF THE KNEE.

 

Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis1

 

 

SIGNS & SYMPTOMS

  • MORNING STIFFNESS USUALLY < 30 MINS.
  • PAIN WITH STRENUOUS ACTIVITY / WEIGHT BEARING/ @ NIGHT
  • JOINT DISCOMFORT BEFORE/DURING A CHANGE IN WEATHER
  • LOSS OF JOINT FLEXIBILITY

PAIN SUBSIDES WITH REST USUALLY

BAKER'S CYST

This is also called a popliteal cyst and typically involves the gastrocnemius- semimembranosus bursa and is located between the medial femoral condyle, semimembranosus tendon and the medial head of the gastrocnemius.It may or may not communicate with the knee joint. It may rupture and extend inferiorly along the gastrocnemius muscle into the calf or extend superiorly into thigh along the semimembranosus.On MRI they appear as well-defined hyperintense lesions on T2W images at the characteristic location. Axial images are the best to demonstrate the communication with the knee joint and also the characteristic location between the semimembranosus tendon and medial head of gastrocnemius.Baker's Cyst

PCL TEAR

PRIMARY RESTRAINT POSTERIOR TRANSLATION OF TIBIA DUE TO FALL ON FLEXED KNEE WITH FOOT PLANTARFLEXED WHICH APPLY POSTERIOR FORCE TO PROXIMAL TIBIA.

CLINICAL FEATURES- DIFFUSE PAIN WITH HAEMARTHROSIS & VAGUE TENDERNESS

MEDIAL & PATELLOFEMORAL OSTEOARTHRITIS

 

PCL tea

ACL TEAR

aCL tea

 

COMMONLY CAUSED DUE TO HYPEREXTENSION INJURY AS TWISTING FORCE ON A SEMI-FLEXED KNEE

STOPPING AND CHANGING DIRECTION SUDDENLY

COMPLAIN OF KNEE FORCED BEYOND NORMAL RANGE WITH POPPING/ TEAR/ SNAPPING SOUND

acl

ARTHROPLASTY/ TOTAL JOINT REPLACEMENT

 

THE RECONSTRUCTION OF THE JOINT BY REPLACING PARTIALLY/FULLY WITH AN ARTIFICIAL JOINT, TORESTORE PAIN FREE ROM IN THE JOINT.

Arthroplasty Total joint replacement1

RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

THE AUTO-IMMUNE INFLAMMATORY DISEASE INVOLVING SMALL JOINTS.

Rheumatoid arthritis

SPRAIN

LIGAMENT INJURY DUE TO FALLING, TWISTING, OR TRAUMA

SYMPTOMS- LOCALISED SWELLING

TENDERNESS

ECCHYMOSIS OVER LIGAMENT

HEMARTHROSIS

UNABLE TO MOVE

POPPING SOUND DURING INJURY

 

Sprain.png1 Sprain

STRAIN

TORN MUSCLE/ TENDON DUE TO OVERSTRETCHING AT REST, TWISTING, PULLING FORCE.

IF THE INJURY IS FOLLOWED BY SEVERE PAIN & RESTRICTED MOVEMENTS- NOTICEABLE TENDERNESS OVER AN ISOLATED PART, IT SIGNIFIES SIGNS OF FRACTURE OR COMPLETE MUSCLE TEAR.

strain

CUBITAL TUNNEL SYNDROME

THE CONDITION CAUSED DUE TO RESTING ELBOWS ON THE HARD SURFACES SUCH AS UNPADDED TABLES/ ARMRESTS. THE ULNAR NERVE, WHICH FEEDS THE RING & LITTLE FINGERS, CAN BECOME IMPAIRED FROM PRESSURE NEAR THE ELBOWS.


GOLFER’S ELBOW

THE INFLAMMATION OF THE MEDIAL EPICONDYLE AT THE ORIGIN OF FLEXOR TENDONS RESULTING IN PAIN AND TENDERNESS OVER THE ELBOW. PAIN IS FELT DUE TO STRESS ON TENDON DUE TO LARGE AMOUNT OF GRIP EXERTED BY DIGITS & TORSION OF THE WRIST.

TENNIS ELBOW

tenis blowThis injury is actually caused by the inflammation of the tendons and muscles in the forearm, and as such is a form of tendonitis. These particular muscles are used to bend the wrist back, causing the palm to be face up. The reason the injury is referred to as tennis elbow is that sports such as tennis can cause these muscles to become overused, bringing on the inflammation and pain.

tenis blow 1

CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME

THE SYNDROME CAUSED DUE TO THE COMPRESSION OF MEDIAN NERVE DUE TO EXCESSIVE WORKING ON COMPUTERS OR AS THE COMPLICATION OF COLLE’S FRACTURE.

carpal tunnel
• CLINICALLY, MOTOR LOSS- INTRINSIC MUSCLE WASTING—WEAK GRIPPING
• APE THUMB DEFORMITY
• LOSS OF OPPOSITION OF THUMB
• PARALYSIS OF FIRST & SECOND LUMBRICALS- UNABLE TO MAKE FIST
• SENSORY LOSS LATERAL 3 HALF DIGITS
• DRY SKIN & WARM DUE TO ARTERIOLAR DILATATION

cubital tunnel syndrome 1

DE-QUERVAIN’S SYNOVITIS

 

de-quervain 1INFLAMMATION OF THE TENDON SHEATH OF ABDUCTOR POLLICIS LONGUS & EXTENSOR POLLICIS BREVIS TENDONS.

PAIN AND TENDERNESS OVER RADIAL STYLOID PROCESS DUE TO TWISTING AND FORCEFUL GRIPPING.

CLINICALLY, PAIN INCREASES BY ADDUCTING THUMB ACROSS PALM & FORCING ULNAR DEVIATION & RADIAL DEVIATION AGAINST RESISTANCE.
de-quervain

CLAW HAND

claw hand

IT IS A DEFORMITY CAUSED DUE TO THE COMPRESSION OF ULNAR NERVE. THE HAND WILL SHOW HYPER-EXTENSION OF THE METACARPOPHALANGEAL JOINTS AND FLEXION OF THE DISTAL & PROXIMAL INTERPHALANGEAL JOINTS OF THE RING AND LITTLE FINGER. PATIENTS ARE UNABLE TO SPREAD OR PULL TOGERTHER THE FINGERS AGAINST RESISTANCE. ALSO, A PROMINENT HOLLOWING BETWEEN THE THUMB AND FOREFINGER IS SEEN. SENSORY LOSS OVER THE RING AND LITTLE FINGERS.

WRIST DROP

THE COMPRESSION OF THE RADIAL NERVE RESULTS IN WRIST DROP OR SATURDAY NIGHT PALSY, CHARACTERISED BY THE WEAK EXTENSORS OF THE WRIST, LOSS OF GRIPPING, AND SENSATION LOSS OVER BACK OF FOREARM & LATERAL SIDE DORSUM OF HAND.

 

wrist drop

 

 

PLANTAR FASCIITIS

Plantar fasciitis, also known as plantar fasciosis or jogger's heel, is a disorder that results in pain in the heel and bottom of the foot. The pain is usually most severe with the first steps of the day or following a period of rest. Pain is also frequently brought on by bending the foot and toes up towards the shin and may be worsened by a tight Achilles tendon. The condition typically comes on slowly. In about a third of people both sides are affected. Typically there are no fevers or night sweats. The causes of plantar fasciitis are not entirely clear. Risk factors include overuse such as from long periods of standing, an increase in exercise, and obesity. It is also associated with inward rolling of the foot and a lifestyle that involves little exercise. While heel spurs are frequently found it is unclear if they have a role in causing the disease. Plantar fasciitis is a disorder of the insertion site of the ligament on the bone characterized by micro tears, breakdown of collagen, and scarring.

Plantar fasciitis Plantar fasciitis1

FLAT FOOT

THE LOSS OF CURVATURE (MEDIAL LONGITUDINAL ARCH) OF FOOT.

flat foot (1)

AMPUTATION

Amputation is the removal of a limb by trauma, medical illness, or surgery. As a surgical measure, it is used to control pain or a disease process in the affected limb, such as malignancy or gangrene. In some cases, it is carried out on individuals as a preventative surgery for such problems.

 

Amputation Amputation1

GOUT

A disease in which defective metabolism of uric acid causes arthritis, especially in the smaller bones of the feet, deposition of chalk-stones, and episodes of acute pain. IT IS caused by too much uric acid in the blood. The most common sign of gout is a nighttime attack of swelling, tenderness, redness, and sharp pain in your big toe.Prenatal, antenatal, and postnatal care6